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60                      THE FATE OF MAN

of -organization as political or economic life.
But this always means that spirit is considered
as an epiphenomenon, that its primacy over the
material is denied. In practice, the process of
organizing a unity of thought usually leads to
strengthening the police and espionage organs of
the state. The desire to do away with spiritual and
mental anarchy, and to attain a spiritual unity and
an integral world-view, is a desire quite just and
deserving of our sympathy: the age of formal
Liberalism, of scepticism and free-thinkers, is
approaching the end of its road. But along the
way there lie in wait the temptations of the
Grand Inquisitor. One of these is the dictated
world-view. It has led to the most evil results
in Russian Communism and in German National-
Socialism, The dictated Weltanschauung is not a
real elimination of chaos, but only a formal
organization of chaos, a superficial, despotic
order beneath which chaos never ceases to yawn.
The modern movements in this direction have
tremendous symptomatic significance: they mean
transition into a new epoch, but they do not
mean that epoch itself Their positive value is
biological, first of all, as indicative of the vital
force of modern youth, its capacity for enthusiasm.